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Neurology and Neurosurgery

Neurology and Neurosurgery

 

Neurology and Neurosurgery overview

  • Willows has an experienced, specialist-led team of small animal Neurology and Neurosurgery clinicians, who work closely with our team of orthopaedic spinal surgeons
  • Our clinicians regularly speak at conferences and CPD meetings in the UK and overseas
  • Dogs and cats with all types of neurological problems are welcomed
  • Urgent cases are seen the same day
 
  • An emergency service is provided,
    24 hours a day, 365 days of the year
  • Our hospitalised patients benefit from:
    • intensive care facilities
    • 24-hour veterinary and nursing care
  • Free telephone advice is given with the
    minimum of delay
  • Willows has an experienced, specialist-led team of small animal Neurology and Neurosurgery clinicians, who work closely with our team of orthopaedic spinal surgeons
  • Our clinicians regularly speak at conferences and CPD meetings in the UK and overseas
  • Dogs and cats with all types of neurological problems are welcomed
  • Urgent cases are seen the same day
  • An emergency service is provided, 24 hours a day, 365 days of the year
  • Our hospitalised patients benefit from:
    • intensive care facilities
    • 24-hour veterinary and nursing care
  • Free telephone advice is given with the minimum of delay


Personnel

 

RCVS and European
Neurology Specialists

 

Neurology/
Neurosurgeon Clinicians

 

ECVN Resident
in Veterinary Neurology

Sebastien Behr - RCVS/European/American Neurology Specialists   Lorna Arrol - MA Vet MB DipECVN MRCVS - European Specialist in Veterinary Neurology   James Elford - BVetMed MRCVS - Resident in Veterinary Neurology    Cristoforo Ricco - Clinician in Veterinary Neurology   Cristina Toni - DVM MRCVS - ECVN Resident in Veterinary Neurology
                 

Sebastien Behr
DVM DipECVN MRCVS

  Lorna Arrol
MA Vet MB DipECVN MRCVS
 

James Elford
BVetMed MRCVS

  Cristoforo Ricco
DVM MRCVS 
 

Cristina Toni
DVM MRCVS 

                 

RCVS and European Neurology Specialists

Sebastien Behr - RCVS/European/American Neurology Specialists

Sebastien Behr
DVM DipECVN MRCVS

Lorna Arrol - MA Vet MB DipECVN MRCVS - European Specialist in Veterinary Neurology

Lorna Arrol
MA Vet MB DipECVN MRCVS



Neurology/Neurosurgeon Clinicians

James Elford - BVetMed MRCVS - Resident in Veterinary Neurology

James Elford
BVetMed MRCVS

 Cristoforo Rocco - DVM MRCVS - Clinician in Veterinary Neurology

Cristoforo Rocco
DVM MRCVS

 

 

ECVN Resident in Veterinary Neurology

Cristina Toni - DVM MRCVS - ECVN Resident in Veterinary Neurology

Cristina Toni
DVM MRCVS 


 

Fully supported by our Orthopaedic Specialists, and a team of on-site Imaging, Anaesthesia and Medicine Specialists

 

TOP

Neuroimaging

     

Willows has unsurpassed neuroimaging facilities and personnel:

  • Imaging Specialists Andrew Parry DipECVDI, Lizza Baines DVR DipECVDI, Sally Birch DipECVDI, Virginie Barberet DipECVDI
  • Highly experienced radiographer Andrew Tanner BSc(Hons)
  • Team of Specialist-led anaesthetists providing optimal anaesthesia care
    for each patient
  • Every MRI and CT study is bespoke and tailored to the patient:
    • our neurology Specialists, imaging Specialists and radiographer liaise throughout the scan
  • We aim to scan all patients where appropriate on the day of their appointment:
    • priority is given to urgent and emergency cases
  • High field magnet MRI scanner (1.5-tesla)
    • fast scanning with extensive range of coils to maximise image quality
  • CT scanner (rapid 16-slice), enabling 3D reconstruction and CT-myelography
  • Advanced imaging studies include:
    • high resolution 3D MRI reconstruction
      • to evaluate fine structures such as cranial and spinal nerves
    • diffusion MRI (ADC mapping)
      • to evaluate cerebrovascular accidents
  Willows high field GE 1.5-tesla MRI scanner

Willows high field GE 1.5-tesla MRI scanner  

MRI – a Cavalier KCS with syringomyelia and Chiari brain malformation. A microchip MRI artefact is present

MRI – a Cavalier KCS with syringomyelia and Chiari brain malformation.
A microchip MRI artefact is present

MRI scan showing hippocampal necrosis in a cat's brain

MRI scan showing hippocampal necrosis in a cat's brain

Diffusion MRI – a sensitive sequence for revealing brain infarction (arrow)

Diffusion MRI – a sensitive sequence for revealing brain infarction (arrow)

 

TOP

Neuroimaging

  • Imaging Specialists Andrew Parry DipECVDI, Lizza Baines DVR DipECVDI, Sally Birch DipECVDI, Virginie Barberet DipECVDI
  • Highly experienced radiographer Andrew Tanner BSc(Hons)
  • Team of Specialist-led anaesthetists providing optimal anaesthesia care
    for each patient
  • Every MRI and CT study is bespoke and tailored to the patient:
    • our neurology Specialists, imaging Specialists and radiographer liaise throughout the scan
  • We aim to scan all patients where appropriate on the day of their appointment:
    • priority is given to urgent and emergency cases
  • High field magnet MRI scanner (1.5-tesla)
    • fast scanning with extensive range of coils to maximise image quality
  • CT scanner (rapid 16-slice), enabling 3D reconstruction and CT-myelography
  • Advanced imaging studies include:
    • high resolution 3D MRI reconstruction
      • to evaluate fine structures such as cranial and spinal nerves
    • diffusion MRI (ADC mapping)
      • to evaluate cerebrovascular accidents

 

MRI – a Cavalier KCS with syringomyelia and Chiari brain malformation. A microchip MRI artefact is present

Willows high field GE 1.5-tesla MRI scanner  

MRI – a Cavalier KCS with syringomyelia and Chiari brain malformation. A microchip MRI artefact is present

MRI – a Cavalier KCS with syringomyelia and Chiari brain malformation.
A microchip MRI artefact is present

MRI scan showing hippocampal necrosis in a cat's brain

MRI scan showing hippocampal necrosis in a cat's brain

Diffusion MRI – a sensitive sequence for revealing brain infarction (arrow)

Diffusion MRI – a sensitive sequence for revealing brain infarction (arrow)

 

TOP

Spinal surgery

     

Our neurosurgical team is able to perform a broad range of spinal procedures, including the most complex challenging techniques.

  • Ventral slot
  • Hemilaminectomy
  • Disc fenestration
  • Dorsal laminectomy
  • Vertebral fracture and luxation
  • Vertebral malformation
  • Arachnoid cyst, spina bifida, dermoid cyst
  • Lumbosacral stenosis
  • Spinal neoplasia
  Intradural extramedullary tumour (spinal meningioma) in a Boxer

Intradural extramedullary tumour (spinal meningioma) in a Boxer

CT scan of a T10-T11 fracture-luxation in a Staffordshire Bull Terrier.

Post-op CT scan shows vertebral body screws and bone cement

CT scan of a T10-T11 fracture-luxation in a Staffordshire Bull Terrier. Post-op CT scan shows vertebral body screws and bone cement

 

TOP

Spinal surgery

Our neurosurgical team is able to perform a broad range of spinal procedures, including the most complex challenging techniques.

  • Ventral slot
  • Hemilaminectomy
  • Disc fenestration
  • Dorsal laminectomy
  • Vertebral fracture and luxation
  • Vertebral malformation
  • Arachnoid cyst, spina bifida, dermoid cyst
  • Lumbosacral stenosis
  • Spinal neoplasia

 

Intradural extramedullary tumour (spinal meningioma) in a Boxer

Intradural extramedullary tumour (spinal meningioma) in a Boxer

CT scan of a T10-T11 fracture-luxation in a Staffordshire Bull Terrier.

Post-op CT scan shows vertebral body screws and bone cement

CT scan of a T10-T11 fracture-luxation in a Staffordshire Bull Terrier. Post-op CT scan shows vertebral body screws and bone cement

 

TOP

Brain disorders

     
  • Seizure diagnosis and management:
    • MRI and CSF collection supervised by an anaesthetist due to increased risks
    • 1 to 1 nursing and constant rate infusions (CRIs) for unstable epileptic patients
    • we have extensive experience of novel anti-epileptic drugs
  • Inflammatory CNS diseases:
    • meningitis, pachymeningitis, encephalitis
    • multimodal immunosuppressive therapies
    • rapid in-house CSF analysis – Cytospin/cytology
    • we have published on inflammatory CNS diseases1, 2
  • Peripheral and central vestibular conditions
  • Cranial nerve disorders (e.g. facial paralysis, trigeminal neuritis)
  • Paroxysmal conditions (e.g. movement disorders, narcolepsy-cataplexy)
  • Brain malformation (e.g. hydrocephalus, hydranencephaly)
  • Brain neoplasia
  MRI – 6 m.o. WHWT with seizures.

Hydranencephaly visible as a large fluid filled structure involving the cerebrum

MRI – 6 m.o. WHWT with seizures.
Hydranencephaly visible as a large fluid filled structure involving the cerebrum

MRI of the brain of a Lurcher with hypertrophic pachymeningitis (arrows)

MRI of the brain of a Lurcher with hypertrophic pachymeningitis (arrows)

Intracranial haemorrhage in a dog with thrombocytopaenia – T2 gradient echo MRI

Intracranial haemorrhage in a dog with thrombocytopaenia – T2 gradient echo MRI

 

TOP

Brain disorders

  • Seizure diagnosis and management:
    • MRI and CSF collection supervised by an anaesthetist due to increased risks
    • 1 to 1 nursing and constant rate infusions (CRIs) for unstable epileptic patients
    • we have extensive experience of novel anti-epileptic drugs
  • Inflammatory CNS diseases:
    • meningitis, pachymeningitis, encephalitis
    • multimodal immunosuppressive therapies
    • rapid in-house CSF analysis – Cytospin/cytology
    • we have published on inflammatory CNS diseases1, 2
  • Peripheral and central vestibular conditions
  • Cranial nerve disorders (e.g. facial paralysis, trigeminal neuritis)
  • Paroxysmal conditions (e.g. movement disorders, narcolepsy-cataplexy)
  • Brain malformation (e.g. hydrocephalus, hydranencephaly)
  • Brain neoplasia

 

MRI – 6 m.o. WHWT with seizures.

Hydranencephaly visible as a large fluid filled structure involving the cerebrum

MRI – 6 m.o. WHWT with seizures.
Hydranencephaly visible as a large fluid filled structure involving the cerebrum

MRI of the brain of a Lurcher with hypertrophic pachymeningitis (arrows)

MRI of the brain of a Lurcher with hypertrophic pachymeningitis (arrows)

Intracranial haemorrhage in a dog with thrombocytopaenia – T2 gradient echo MRI

Intracranial haemorrhage in a dog with thrombocytopaenia – T2 gradient echo MRI

 

TOP

Brain surgery

     

Indications for brain surgery include:

  • Brain abscess / empyema
  • Certain brain tumours e.g. meningioma in cats and dogs

We are able to optimise the outcome for such challenging cases due to our Specialist training, multi-disciplinary approach, state-of-the-art surgical facilities and 24-hour intensive care provision.

We are happy to discuss the suitability of brain surgery with you or your clients, even if the imaging study has been performed elsewhere.

 

6 m.o. Jack Russell Terrier with a brain tumour.  Preoperative MRI scan6 m.o. Jack Russell Terrier with a brain tumour.

Brain surgery being performed by two of Willows’ neurology SpecialistsBrain surgery being performed by two of Willows’ neurology Specialists

6 m.o. Jack Russell Terrier with a brain tumour.  Photograph of the dog the day following surgery
Preoperative MRI scan and photograph of the dog the day following surgery

 

TOP

Brain surgery

Indications for brain surgery include:

  • Brain abscess / empyema
  • Certain brain tumours e.g. meningioma in cats and dogs

We are able to optimise the outcome for such challenging cases due to our Specialist training, multi-disciplinary approach, state-of-the-art surgical facilities and 24-hour intensive care provision.

We are happy to discuss the suitability of brain surgery with you or your clients, even if the imaging study has been performed elsewhere.

6 m.o. Jack Russell Terrier with a brain tumour.  Preoperative MRI scan 
6 m.o. Jack Russell Terrier with a brain tumour.

Brain surgery being performed by two of Willows’ neurology Specialists
Brain surgery being performed by two of Willows’ neurology Specialists

6 m.o. Jack Russell Terrier with a brain tumour.  Photograph of the dog the day following surgery
Preoperative MRI scan and photograph of the dog the day following surgery

 

 

TOP

Spinal disorders

     

Our Specialists have extensive experience of a wide variety of spinal disorders in dogs and cats3.

  • Disc herniation – acute and chronic
  • Cervical spondylopathy ('wobbler syndrome')
  • Syringomyelia and Chiari malformation
  • Spinal trauma
  • Meningitis, meningomyelitis, discospondylitis
  • Spinal malformations
  • Spinal neoplasia4
  MRI of a Doberman with cervical spondylopathy

MRI of a Doberman with cervical spondylopathy

MRI scan – disc extrusion with severe spinal cord compression at L2-L3

MRI scan – disc extrusion with severe spinal cord compression at L2-L3

 

TOP

Spinal disorders

Our Specialists have extensive experience of a wide variety of spinal disorders in dogs and cats3.

  • Disc herniation – acute and chronic
  • Cervical spondylopathy ('wobbler syndrome')
  • Syringomyelia and Chiari malformation
  • Spinal trauma
  • Meningitis, meningomyelitis, discospondylitis
  • Spinal malformations
  • Spinal neoplasia4

 

MRI of a Doberman with cervical spondylopathy

MRI of a Doberman with cervical spondylopathy

MRI scan – disc extrusion with severe spinal cord compression at L2-L3

MRI scan – disc extrusion with severe spinal cord compression at L2-L3

 

TOP

Neuromuscular disorders

  • Polyneuropathy e.g. polyradiculoneuritis, endocrine neuropathy
  • Junctionopathy e.g. myasthenia gravis
  • Myopathy e.g. polymyositis, masticatory myositis

 

TOP

Neuromuscular investigations

     
  • Advanced Nihon Koden electrodiagnostic unit
    • electromyography (EMG), nerve conduction, F-wave, repetitive stimulations
  • Muscle and nerve biopsy
  EMG – denervation due to a polyneuropathy in a Labrador showing fibrillation potentials and positive sharp waves

EMG – denervation due to a polyneuropathy in a Labrador showing fibrillation potentials and positive sharp waves

 

TOP

Neuromuscular investigations

  • Advanced Nihon Koden electrodiagnostic unit
    • electromyography (EMG), nerve conduction, F-wave, repetitive stimulations
  • Muscle and nerve biopsy

 

EMG – denervation due to a polyneuropathy in a Labrador showing fibrillation potentials and positive sharp waves

EMG – denervation due to a polyneuropathy in a Labrador showing fibrillation potentials and positive sharp waves

 

Recent Publications

  1. Behr, S. and Cauzinille, L. Aseptic suppurative meningitis in juvenile boxer dogs: retrospective study of 12 cases. Journal of the American Animal Hospital Association 42, 277-282, 2006
  2. Behr, S. and others. Treatment of meningoencephalitis of unknown origin in a dog. Veterinary Record 164, 627-629, 2009
  3. Marioni-Henry, K. Feline spinal cord diseases. In: Spinal Diseases. Veterinary Clinics of North America: Small Animal Practice 40, 1011–1028, 2010
  4. Marioni-Henry, K. and others. Tumors affecting the spinal cord of cats: 85 cases (1980–2005). Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 232, 237-243, 2008