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Willows Scientific Papers for the following veterinary specialists:
K.Roe, A. Pratt, J. Lulich, C. Osborne and H. Syme (2012) Analysis of 14,008 uroliths from dogs in the UK over a 10-year period. Journal of Small Animal Practice 53, 634-640
Warren-Smith CM, Roe K, de la Puerta B, Smith K, Lamb CR (2011) Pulmonary Adenocarcinoma seeding along a fine needle aspiration tract in a dog. Veterinary Record 13; 169 (7): 181
Roe KA, Syme HM, Brooks HW (2010) Congenital large intestinal hypoganglionosis in a domestic shorthair kitten. Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery 12 (5): 418- 20
BVSc CertSAM DipACVIM DipECVIM-CA DipACVN MRCVS
RCVS Specialist in Small Animal Medicine (Internal Medicine)
American and European Specialist in Small Animal Internal Medicine
American Specialist in Small Animal Nutrition
FIRST AUTHOR PUBLICATIONS
Gajanayake, I. (2014) Management of the anorexic cat. In Practice 36, 163-171
Anorexia in cats is often encountered in practice. In many cases, the underlying cause is not readily apparent. In this situation, the aetiology of the anorexia must be determined by a methodical step-wise investigation. In addition, measures must be taken to address the anorexia to prevent detrimental metabolic consequences. This article explains how to approach the diagnosis and management of anorexia in cats.
Gajanayake, I., Wylie, C. E. and Chan, D. L. (2013) Clinical experience with a lipid-free, ready-made parenteral nutrition solution in dogs: 70 cases (2006–2012). Journal of Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care. doi: 10.1111/vec.12029
OBJECTIVE: To review the clinical use of a lipid-free, ready-made amino acid and glucose parenteral nutrition (PN) solution in dogs.
DESIGN: Retrospective study of dogs from 2006 to 2012 that received this form of PN.
SETTING: University veterinary teaching hospital.
ANIMALS: Seventy dogs presented to the hospital for treatment of various diseases in which PN was used as part of patient management. Dogs were administered PN at the discretion of the primary clinician.
INTERVENTION: A lipid-free, ready-made solution containing amino acid (59 g/L) and dextrose (100 g/L) was administered intravenously as a constant rate infusion to provide nutritional support.
MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: PN was provided for a median of 2.2 days (range 0.5-9.5 days) in the 70 dogs, totalling 168 days of PN. The PN provided a median of 5.5 g/100 kcal of protein (range 1-9.5 g/100 kcal) and a median of 2.2 mg/kg of bodyweight per minute (range 0.8-5.2 mg/kg/min) of glucose, which reflected a median of 57% of the resting energy requirement (range 9-100%). Metabolic complications developed in 43 of 67 dogs where these data were recorded, but the development of hyperkalemia was the only complication associated with a poor outcome (eg, death or euthanasia). Mechanical complications were seen in 28 dogs, and all but one of these occurred when PN was delivered through peripheral catheters. Septic complications were confirmed in 5 dogs.
CONCLUSIONS: This form of PN is suitable for clinical use and can provide both protein and calories to ill dogs. It was, however, associated with a high rate of complications and requires careful patient monitoring.
Gajanayake, I., Priestnall, S.L., Benigni, L., English, K., Summers, B.A. & Garden, O.A. (2010) Paraneoplastic hypercalcemia in a dog with benign renal angiomyxoma. Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation 22, 775-780
An 11-year-old, male, neutered crossbred Collie dog was presented for a history of polydipsia and polyuria. Diagnostic investigations revealed total and ionized hypercalcemia and an increased concentration of parathyroid hormone-related peptide. Abdominal ultrasonography and contrast-enhanced computed tomography of the abdomen revealed a right-sided, cystic-appearing renal mass. Cytological examination of ultrasound-guided aspirates of the mass revealed high numbers of spindle cells. The mass was removed en bloc via an ureteronephrectomy. Histopathological examination of the mass revealed neoplastic spindle cells in loosely packed and interlacing streams within a myxomatous stroma. Immunohistochemical examination with vimentin, von Willebrand Factor, and alpha-smooth muscle actin confirmed the mass to be a renal angiomyxoma. A minority of the neoplastic spindle cells showed positive cytoplasmic parathyroid hormone-related peptide immunostaining. The hypercalcemia resolved following surgery, and the parathyroid hormone-related peptide concentration returned to within the reference interval. The dog was no longer polydipsic or polyuric 1 year following surgery. The present report describes a previously unreported renal neoplasm causing paraneoplastic hypercalcemia and highlights the possibility of paraneoplastic hypercalcemia being caused by a benign neoplasm.
Gajanayake, I. & Chan, D.L. (2009) Nutritional support for the critical care patient. In Practice 31, 386-389
Malnutrition is thought to have a significant impact on morbidity and mortality in human patients who are critically ill. As a result, nutritional support has become a priority rather than an afterthought in the management of patients in many intensive care units. The importance of nutritional modulation of diseases is also increasingly being recognised in veterinary medicine, and this is especially true of critical illness. This article discusses the provision of parenteral and enteral nutrition for the critical care patient, and describes some situations in which these treatments are particularly useful.
Gajanayake, I., Niessen, S., Cherubini, G.B. & Shelton, G.D. (2008) Acquired myasthenia gravis and dysautonomia in a dog. Journal of Small Animal Practice 49, 593-595
A two-year-old male entire border collie dog was evaluated for a short history of mixed bowel diarrhoea, coughing, vomiting and stranguria. Physical examination revealed dyspnoea with increased ventral lung sounds and a flaccidly distended bladder. Neurological examination revealed poor pupillary light reflexes, an absent gag reflex and a poor anal tone. Thoracic radiography was consistent with megaoesophagus and aspiration pneumonia. Clinicopathological testing revealed an elevated muscular nicotinic acetylcholine receptor antibody titre. The dog was euthanased because of clinical deterioration. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) collected immediately post-mortem revealed macrophagic pleocytosis. Post-mortem histopathological examination was consistent with dysautonomia. This is the first report of coexisting autoimmune myasthenia gravis and dysautonomia in a non-human species. The concomitant diseases may suggest a common immunopathological aetiology.
NON- FIRST AUTHOR PUBLICATIONS
Darcy H, Simpson K, Gajanayake I, Seth M, McGrotty Y, Szladovits B and Glanemann B (2018). Feline primary erythrocytosis: a multicentre case series of 18 cats. Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery
A retrospective multicentre case series of feline primary erythrocytosis (PE) was evaluated. The aim was to gain better understanding of disease presentation and progression to guide management and prognostication. Case records were assessed for evidence of increased packed cell volume (PCV; >48%), sufficient investigation to rule out relative and secondary erythrocytosis, and follow-up data for at least 12 months or until death. Eighteen cats were included in the case series. No significant trends in signalment were noted. Seizures and mentation changes were the most common presenting signs (both n = 10). Median PCV was 70% (median total protein concentration of 76 g/l) with no other consistent haematological changes. Sixteen cats survived to discharge. Phlebotomy was performed initially in 15/16 surviving animals and performed after discharge in 10/16. Hydroxyurea was the most common adjunctive therapy, used in 10/16 cats. Of the 16 patients surviving to discharge, 14 patients were still alive at the conclusion of the study (survival time >17 months post-discharge), with the two non-survivors having lived for 5 years or more after diagnosis. PCV, when stabilised, did not correlate with resolution of clinical signs.
Relevance and novel information
In contrast to perceptions, feline PE was generally well managed via a combination of phlebotomy and medical therapy, with evidence of prolonged survival times. The use of hydroxyurea enabled cessation or repeat phlebotomies.
Andrew H Sparkes, Sarah Caney, Serge Chalhoub, Jonathan Elliott, Natalie Finch, Isuru Gajanayake, Catherine Langston, Hervé P Lefebvre, Joanna White, and Jessica Quimby (2016) ISFM Consensus Guidelines on the Diagnosis and Management of Feline Chronic Kidney Disease Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery 18: 219-239
Penning, V.A., Connolly, D.J., Gajanayake, I., McMahon, L.A., Luis Fuentes, V., Chandler, K.E. & Volk, H.A. (2009) Seizure-like episodes in three cats with intermittent high grade atrioventricular dysfunction. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine 23, 200-205
Reliance on history and description of episodes of collapse to differentiate seizures from syncope can be misleading. Syncope can have features of seizures or can be the cause of seizures. Clinical and neurologic examinations can also be misleading. High-grade atrioventricular (AV) block can be intermittent in cats and interictal neurologic examination can be normal in patients with epilepsy. In this report we describe high-grade AV dysfunction that mimicked epilepsy in 3 cats.
Chandler, M., Elwood, C., Murphy, K., Gajanayake, I. & Syme, H (2007) Juvenile nephropathy in 37 Boxer dogs. Journal of Small Animal Practice 48, 690-694
The purpose of this study was to review and characterise the clinical presentation of young boxer dogs with chronic kidney disease referred to the authors' institutions. Records were collected retrospectively from 37 boxer dogs, less than five years of age, which had presented with azotaemia, inappropriately low urine concentrating ability, and ultrasound or radiographic evidence of abnormal kidneys. Clinicopathological findings included azotaemia, hyperphosphataemia, anaemia, isosthenuria and proteinuria. Ultrasonographic findings included hyperechoic renal cortices, loss of corticomedullary junction definition, dilated pelves and irregularly shaped small kidneys. Renal histopathological findings included pericapsular and interstitial fibrosis, inflammatory cell infiltration, dilated tubules, sclerotic glomeruli and dystrophic calcification. Survival time of the dogs varied from zero to over five years after diagnosis. This paper documents features of the presentation and progression of juvenile nephropathy in boxer dogs. While juvenile nephropathy has been reported in individual cases of boxer dogs previously, this is the first reported case series.
Wray, J.D., Gajanayake, I. & Smith, S.H. (2007) Congestive heart failure associated with a large transverse left ventricular moderator band in a cat. Journal of Feline Medicine & Surgery 9, 56-60
Cardiomyopathy associated with abnormal trabecular bands of tissue traversing one or both ventricles is reported rarely in cats. The case of a 9-year-old cat which presented in congestive heart failure is reported. Multiple cardiac abnormalities were found, including a large trabecular tissue bridge which bisected the left ventricle. Other findings included arrhythmia, thrombocytopaenia and raised serum creatine kinase. The cat was euthanased due to clinical deterioration. Necropsy findings included increased cardiac weight, the division of the left ventricle by a large trabecular band composed of connective tissue and cardiac myofibres consistent with a moderator band, nodular thickening of the mitral valve, left atrial dilation, and fibroplasia/fibrosis of the left ventricular myocardium associated with widespread myofibre necrosis due to infarction. Pathological findings in this case differ from previous reports of ventricular transverse bridging tissue in cats with cardiac disease.
NON- PEER REVIEWED PUBLICATIONS
Gajanayake, I.(2017) Senior pets - dietary advice to offer cat and dog owners. Vet Times, 17 April 2017
Gajanayake, I. (2015) Nasoesophageal feeding tubes in dogs and cats
Gajanayake, I. & Chan, D.L. (2015) Gastrostomy feeding tubes in dogs and cats In: Nutritional Management of Hospitalized Small Animals. 1st edn. Ed Daniel L. Chan. Wiley Blackwell, Chichester, United Kingdom
Gajanayake, I., Lumbis, R., Greet, G. & Girling, S. (2011) Nutrition and feeding. In: BSAVA Textbook of Veterinary Nursing. 5th edn. Eds B. Cooper, E. Mollineaux and L. Turner. British Small Animal Veterinary Association, Gloucester, United Kingdom. pp 305-345.
Major A, Holmes A, O’Halloran C, Warren-Smith C, Lalor S, Littler R, Spence S, Schwarz T, Gunn-Moore D. (2017) Use of computed tomography imaging during long-term follow-up of nine feline tuberculosis cases. Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery.
Lalor SM, Clarke S, Pink J, Parry A, Scurrell E, Fitzpatrick N, Watson F, O’Halloran C, Gunn-Moore DA. (June 2017) Tuberculosis Joint Infections in Four Domestic Cats, JFMS Open Reports.
Lalor S. Identifying Feline Hypercalcemia. Vet Times January 2016.
Major A, Holmes A, Warren-Smith C, Lalor S, Littler R, Schwarz T, Gunn-Moore D. (2015) Computed tomographic findings in cats with mycobacterial infection. Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery Jun 4 [Epub ahead of print]
Titmarsh H, Kilpatrick S, Sinclair J, Boag A, Bode EF, Lalor SM, Gaylor D, Berry J, Bommer NX, Gunn-Moore D, Reed N, Handel I, Mellanby RJ. (2015) Vitamin D status predicts 30 day mortality in hospitalised cats. PLoS One May 13;10(5):e0125997. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0125997. eCollection 2015.
Titmarsh H, Lalor S, Tasker S, Barker E, Berry J, Gunn-Moore D, Mellanby R. (2015) Vitamin D status in cats with feline immunodeficiency virus. Veterinary Medicine and Science 2, 72–78.
Lalor S M, Connolly D J, Elliott J, Syme HM. (2009) Plasma concentrations of natriuretic peptides in normal cats and normotensive and hypertensive cats with chronic kidney disease. Journal of Veterinary Cardiology 11, 71-79
Bennet A, Lalor S M, Schwarz T, Gunn-Moore D M (2011) Radiographic Findings in Cats with Mycobacterial Infections.. Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery. 12, 718-724
Lalor SM, Mellanby R J, Friend E J, Bowlt K L, Berry J and Gunn-Moore D M (2012) Domesticated cats with active mycobacteria infections have low serum vitamin D (25(OH)D) concentrations. Transboundary and Emerging Diseases 59, 279-8
Lalor S M, Schwartz AM, Titmarsh H, Reed N, Tasker S, Boland L, Berry J, Gunn-Moore D, Mellanby R J (2014) Cats with inflammatory bowel disease and intestinal small cell lymphoma have low serum concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin d. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine 28, 351-355
Reed N, Espadas I, Lalor S M, Kisielewicz C.(2014) Assessment of five formulae to predict post-transfusion packed cell volume in cats. Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery Jan 6. [Epub ahead of print]
Lalor S M, Gunn-Moore D M Cash R, Foot A, Reed N, Mellanby R J (2014) Serum Cardiac Troponin I concentrations in cats with anaemia - a preliminary, single-centre observational study. Journal of Small Animal Practice Mar 20. [Epub ahead of print]
Lalor S M. Feline lower urinary tract disease and Purina Veterinary Diets (2011) The Veterinary Nurse 2, 388 - 393
Lalor SM* (2017) Chyloabdomen in dogs and cats. BSAVA Congress
Clarke KM, Lalor SM* et al (2017) Retrospective study of clinical findings, treatment and outcome in dogs and cats diagnosed with dysautonomia. ECVIM Congress
Lalor S M*, Syme H, Elliot J (2010) Do Cats With Hypertension But No Ocular Lesions Have Increases in Plasma NT-ProBNP Concentration? Proceedings of the 28th ACVIM-CA Congress
Lalor S M*, Gunn-Moore D M (2011) Uropathogenic Filamentous Escherichia coli in a cat. Small Animal Medicine Society meeting, BSAVA
Lalor S M*, Mellanby RJ, Gunn-Moore DA. (2011) Investigation of relationship between vitamin D status and mycobacterial infections in cats. Proceedings of the 21st ECVIM-CA Congress
Lalor S M*, Gunn-Moore D M Cash R, Foot A, Reed N, Mellanby R J (2014) Serum Cardiac Troponin I concentrations in cats with anaemia. BSAVA Congress
Black V*, Lalor S M, Adamantous S (2014) Pure red cell aplasia and non-regenerative immune-mediated haemolytic anaemia in the cat: 20 cases. BSAVA Congress
Gunn-Moore D and Lalor S (2015). Tuberculosis in Companion Animal Species in Tuberculosis, Leprosy and other Mycobacterial Diseases of Man and Animals. Edited by H Mukundan, M Chambers, R Waters, M Larsen.
Girod, M, Allerton, F., Gommeren, K., Tutunaru, AC., de Marchin, J.3, Van Soens, I., Ramery, E. and Peeters, D. (2016) Evaluation of the effect of oral omeprazole on canine cerebrospinal fluid production: A pilot study. The Vet Journal 209: 119-24
F.J.W. Allerton, J. Leemans, F. Bernearts, C. Tual, F. Bernaerts, N. Kirschvink, and C. Clercx (2013) Correlation of bronchoalveolar eosinophilic percentage with airway responsiveness in cats with chronic bronchial disease. Journal of Small Animal Practice 54, 258–264
Gomart, S, Allerton, F, Gommeren, K Accuracy of different temperature reading techniques and associated stress response in hospitalized dogs. Accepted for publication in the Journal of Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care
Gommeren, K, Allerton, F, Reynaud, A, Morin, E, Peeters, D, and Silverstein, D Evaluation of a rapid bedside scoring system for microcirculation videos acquired from dogs. Accepted for publication in the Journal of Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care
Research – Presentations:
With an international target audience
Ravicini, S., Kent, A., Dunning, M. and Allerton, F. (2017) The Use of a Combination-Drug Protocol Versus Glucocorticoids Alone for Treatment of Idiopathic Immune-Mediated Polyarthritis. Proceedings of the ACVIM Congress, Maryland, USA
Allerton, F., Swinbourne, F., Dunning, M. and Kent, M. (2017). Breed predisposition to gall bladder mucocoeles in Border Terriers. Proceedings of the 27th ECVIM-CA Congress, Malta
Allerton, F*, Gommeren, K, Reynaud, A, Morin, E, Peeters, D, Drobatz, K, & Silverstein, D. (2012). Semiquantitative bedside evaluation of the microcirculation via sidestream dark field imaging in dogs. Proceedings of the 22nd ECVIM-CA Congress (pp. 208).
de Laat, B. W. G. A, Gommeren, K, Denies, S, Merveille, A.-C, Gomart, S, Allerton, F, & Peeters, D. (2012). Influence of sedatives, anticonvulsants and a negative chronotrope on transcranial doppler ultrasonography. Proceedings of the 22nd ECVIM-CA Congress (pp. 209).
Gommeren, K, Allerton, F*, Reynaud, A, Morin, E, Drobatz, K, Peeters, D, & Silverstein, D. (2012). Qualitative bedside evaluation of the microcirculation via sidestream dark field imaging in dogs. Proceedings of the 22nd ECVIM-CA Congress (pp. 208).
Girod, M, Allerton, F, Gommeren, K, Tutunaru, A, De-Marchin, J, Van Soens, I, Peeters, D. (2013) Effects of omeprazole on the canine cerebrospinal fluid composition. Proceedings of the 23rd ECVIM-CA Congress.
Andrew Kent (2016) Fanconi-like syndrome associated with jerky treats. Companion Animal. 21 (7) 426–426 10.12968/coan.2016.21.7.426
A. Tamborini, H. Jahns, H. McAllister, A. Kent, B. Harris, F. Procoli, K. Allenspach, E.J. Hall, M.J. Day, P.J. Watson and E.J. O’Neill (2016) Bacterial Cholangitis, Cholecystitis, or both in Dogs. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine. 30 (4) 1046–1055
Bacterial cholangitis and cholecystitis are rarely reported, poorly characterized diseases in the dog.
To characterize the clinical features of these conditions.
Twenty-seven client-owned dogs with bacterial cholangitis, cholecystitis, or both.
Multicenter, retrospective cases series of dogs with bacterial cholangitis, cholecystitis, or both, presenting January 2000 to June 2011 to 4 Veterinary Schools in Ireland/United Kingdom. Interrogation of hospital databases identified all cases with the inclusion criteria; histopathologically confirmed cholangitis or cholecystitis and bile culture/cytology results supporting a bacterial ethology.
Twenty-seven dogs met the inclusion criteria with approximately 460 hepatitis cases documented over the same study period. Typical clinical pathology findings were increases in liver enzyme activities (25/26), hyperbilirubinemia (20/26), and an inflammatory leukogram (21/24). Ultrasound findings, although nonspecific, aided decision-making in 25/26 cases. The most frequent hepatobiliary bacterial isolates were Escherichia coli (n = 17; 16 cases), Enterococcus spp. (n = 8; 6 cases), and Clostridium spp. (n = 5; 5 cases). Antimicrobial resistance was an important feature of aerobic isolates; 10/16 E. coli isolates resistant to 3 or more antimicrobial classes. Biliary tract rupture complicated nearly one third of cases, associated with significant mortality (4/8). Discharged dogs had a guarded to fair prognosis; 17/18 alive at 2 months, although 5/10 re-evaluated had persistent liver enzyme elevation 2–12 months later. Conclusion and Clinical Significance
Bacterial cholangitis and cholecystitis occur more frequently than suggested by current literature and should be considered in dogs presenting with jaundice and fever, abdominal pain, or an inflammatory leukogram or with ultrasonographic evidence of gallbladder abnormalities.
A. C. C. Kent, G. Cross, D. R. Taylor, R. A. Sherwood and P. J. Watson (2016) Measurement of serum 7α-hydroxy-4-cholesten-3-one as a marker of bile acid malabsorption in dogs with chronic diarrhoea: a pilot study. Vet Record Open.
A. C. C. Kent, F. Constantino-Casas, C. Rusbridge, B. M. Corcoran, M. Carter, T. Ledger and P. J. Watson (2016) Prevalence of pancreatic, hepatic and renal microscopic lesions in post-mortem samples from cavalier King Charles spaniels. Journal of Small Animal Practice 57, 188–193
Andrew Kent, Fernando Constantino-Casas and Michael E Herrtage (2016) Naturally occurring acquired primary hypothyroidism in a cat due to lymphocytic thyroiditis. Veterinary Record Vet Rec Case Rep 2016;4:e000282 doi:10.1136/vetreccr-2015-000282
A five-year-old ovariohysterectomised female Bengal cat was presented for investigation of weight gain, despite dietary modification, and a dry, poor quality hair coat with diffuse scaling of the skin. Initial blood testing identified a mild, non-regenerative anaemia, a mild elevation in serum creatinine concentration and a low serum total thyroxine (T4) concentration. Further thyroid testing also demonstrated low free T4 and elevated serum thyroid-stimulating hormone concentrations, consistent with a diagnosis of hypothyroidism. The cat was treated with levothyroxine and had a good clinical response, with post-treatment T4 concentration in the reference interval. The cat was euthanased for an unrelated condition (tracheal lymphoma) six months later, which provided the opportunity for histopathological examination of the thyroid gland. Histopathology was consistent with a bilateral lymphocytic, plasmacytic and neutrophilic thyroiditis. Although rare, naturally occurring acquired hypothyroidism, due to lymphocytic thyroiditis, should be considered as a differential for thyroid dysfunction in cats.